Preparation of RNA. Total RNA was extracted from liver using the guanidine thiocyanate/CsCl method. Livers were crushed while frozen and homogenized in a solution containing 4 M guanidine isothiocyanate, 26.5 mM NaOAc (pH 6.0), and 125 mM 2‑mercaptoethanol. The homogenate was layered over a solution containing 5.7 M cesium chloride and 25.5 mM NaOAc (pH 6.0) in an SW.28 ultracentrifuge tube (Beckman) and centrifuged overnight at 25°C at 96,000 x g. RNA pellets were resuspended in double distilled H20 and precipitated with 0.1 volume 3 M NaOAc and 2.5 volumes ethanol on dry ice for 30 minutes. Precipitates were resuspended in double distilled H2O. RNA samples were stored at -70°C. PolyA mRNA was isolated from 250 µg total RNA using Oligotex mRNA Kit (Qiagen).